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5110 Kali Era, Sarvadhari
Vikramarka Era, Sarvadhari
Schizophrenia is a lifelong disease affecting about 1 percent of the world's
population. Before today's antipsychotic drugs were developed, patients generally
were hospitalized, sometimes for life. Current drugs generally can
halt or lessen the hallucinations, delusions and aggression patients suffer,
but they don't help most patients with other symptoms, including depression,
lack of drive or energy, and impaired memory and attention. Those symptoms
make it difficult for patients to hold a job or maintain relationships, and
many people with schizophrenia end up homeless or imprisoned.
Johnson & Johnson sells the former blockbuster schizophrenia drug Risperdal,
which together with two related medicines brought in $4.7 billion in 2007
- roughly 8 percent of total global sales. But Risperdal lost patent
protection last summer and generic competition cut sales by 61 percent in
2008's third quarter. A newer, long-acting injected version called Risperdal
Consta hasn't picked up much of the slack, and a successor drug called Invega
hasn't been a success either. So, Johnson & Johnson has made
an unusual $10 million deal with Vanderbilt University, whose researchers
will work on development of a potential new schizophrenia treatment, all
the way up to creating a compound ready for testing in people. The
Vanderbilt-J&J partnership appears to be more extensive than historical
university-industry collaborations. Instead of just identifying the research
target, or mechanism that an eventual drug would alter, the point at which
many university collaborations stop, Vanderbilt's team will test many compounds
to find the best one and try to fine tune it to boost effectiveness and limit
side effects. Existing drugs block dopamine. Under the collaboration,
Vanderbilt University scientists instead will target another important neurotransmitter,
Vanderbilt University Medical Center has opened a laboratory devoted to advancing
the understanding and treatment of diverse brain disorders including autism,
ADHD, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. The Vanderbilt Laboratory for
Neurobehavior, which officially opened January 15, 2009, allows scientists
to research the complex roles of genes, as well as the impact of drugs, in
how the brain supports learning, memory, attention, emotion and social behavior.
The 9,000-square-foot lab dwarfs the prior space dedicated to neurobehavioral
research in animal models at Vanderbilt. The new lab is supported by
the Center for Molecular Neuroscience, the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for
Research on Human Development and the National Institutes of Health.
New treatments are needed in this therapeutic area. The U.S. Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) has been reviewing SAPHRIS(TM) (asenapine) sublingual
tablets in the acute treatment of schizophrenia in adults and in the acute
treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in
adults as monotherapy. Schering-Plough acquired asenapine in November
2007 through its acquisition of Organon BioSciences, which developed the
Disease and Anti-Psychotics
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia and causes symptoms
including aggression, delusions and hallucinations. Previous studies have
shown anti-psychotic drugs, which can help control the aggression and hallucinations
for a few months raise the risk of death in older patients with dementia.
There are other side effects, including respiratory problems and stroke.
Anti-psychotic drugs commonly used to treat Alzheimer's disease may double
a patient's chance of dying within a few years, suggests a new study that
adds to concerns already known about such medications. Newer anti-psychotic
drugs are no safer than older ones for the risk of suddenly dying from a
heart problem, says a study that finds they roughly double that hazard.
Experts aren't sure how the anti-psychotics increase patients' risk of dying.
But they think the drugs could be damaging to the brain and their sedative
effects make patients less able to exercise and more susceptible to deadly
infections. The research was published Friday in the medical journal, Lancet
According to the research findings published in Aging Cell (Vol. 7: 506-515,
2008) and Journal of Neuroscience (Vol. 28: 10330-10338, 2008), apolipoprotein
D or ApoD shows protective and reparative role in neurodegenerative diseases,
which suggests interesting avenues for preventing and slowing the progression
of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, stroke, dementia, Parkinson's
and multiple sclerosis, to name a few.
Stem cell Research
Patients reported greater ability to walk and more movement in their joints
after a transplant of their own bone marrow cells. Their condition
continued to improve for up to two years after the pioneering procedure,
doctors found. Last year experts predicted that stem cell therapy could
be used to "cure" the crippling neurological disease, which affects about
85,000 people in Britain, within 15 years.
Sufferers experience fatigue, difficulty walking or speaking and pain.
Caused by damage to myelin, a protective sheath around the body's central
nervous system, there is no known cure for MS and few successful treatments.
Stem cells have become increasingly important in medical research for their
ability to turn themselves into any kind of cell. Previous research
had suggested that they had the ability to help the body to rebuild myelin
damaged by MS. The findings, published in the Lancet Neurology medical
journal, showed that 81 per cent of patients had significant improvements
to their disability.
By injecting stem cells directly into the brain, scientists have successfully
reversed neural birth defects in mice whose mothers were given heroin during
pregnancy (Molecular Psychiatry, 2008; Journal of Neurochemistry, 2008).
Even though most of the transplanted cells did not survive, they induced
the brain's own cells to carry out extensive repairs. Transplanted
stem cells have previously shown promise in reversing brain damage caused
by strokes, as well as by neurological diseases like Parkinson's, Alzheimer's,
and Huntington's. But their use in treating birth defects is relatively new.
In recent years, a handful of research teams have been developing stem-cell-based
therapies for rodents with real or simulated birth defects in the brain.
Viagra for Heart
The erectile dysfunction drug sildenafil amplifies the effects of a heart-protective
protein, according to a report published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation
online Jan. 5. Sildenafil, more widely known as Viagra prescribed
for Erectile Dysfunction (ED) and also marketed as Revatio for pulmonary
arterial hypertension, has already been shown to improve heart function.
It may have value in either treating or preventing heart damage due to chronic
high blood pressure. The key, investigators say, is sildenafil's effects
on a single protein, RGS2, newly identified in the latest study as an essential
link in the chain reactions that initially protect the body's main blood-pumping
organ from spiraling into heart failure. RGS2 is stimulated by an enzyme,
called protein kinase G, whose action is, in turn, raised by countering the
activity of another enzyme, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5A). Sildenafil's ability
to block PDE5A was shown in 2005 to be responsible for blunting hypertrophy
due to high blood pressure in mice and offsetting similar, adrenaline-stimulated
heart stress in people. PDE5A is involved in the breakdown of a key
molecule, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which helps control stresses and
limit overgrowth in the heart. PDE5A is also the biological pathway blocked
in the penis by sildenafil to promote the relaxation of blood vessels and
maintain erections. RGS2 acts like a short-term reset mechanism in
the heart, recoupling G proteins that if left alone stimulate the heart's
response to high blood pressure resulting in a cascade of reactions known
as Gq signaling leading to scar tissue formation, hypertrophy and heart failure.
Currently, physicians use ACE inhibitors and ARB inhibitors to block Gq signaling.
These classes of drugs are the most common treatment for heart failure, which
afflicts more than 5 million Americans, killing over a quarter million of
them each year.
Immunization for Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and fatal brain disease for which
there is no cure. It destroys brain cells, causing problems with memory,
thinking and behavior severe enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies and
social life. According to the Alzheimer's Association, as many as 5 million
Americans are living with AD, which is the sixth-leading cause of death in
the United States.
Delivering monoclonal antibodies directed against beta-amyloid that accumulates
in the brains of individuals with AD is called "passive immunization," since
the body is receiving the antibodies, rather then generating the antibodies
itself. Several innovator pharmaceutical companies, such as Abbott,
Wyeth, Elan, Pfizer, Lilly, Genentech etc., are investing heavily in developing
antibodies (passive immunization) and vaccines (active immunization) for
for Generic Pain Medication
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., established in 1983 and headquartered
in India, received several ANDA approvals from FDA. Approval was received
for generic hydocodone bitartate with acetaminophen (APAP) tablets.
The approval for Hydrocodone with APAP is the first approval for products
based on controlled substances. Hydrocodone with APAP is a narcotic
analgesic indicated in the treatment of relief of moderate to moderately
severe pain of acute, chronic, or post-operative types. This is a Schedule
III drug, regulated partly by the Controlled Substance Act of 1940 in the
Approvals have been received for ten generic versions of these tablets containing
Hydrocodone and APAP in the following strengths; 5/325 mg, 7.5/325 mg, 10/325
mg, 5/500 mg, 7.5/500 mg, 10/500 mg, 7.5/650 mg, 10/650 mg, 10/660 mg and
Hydrocodone + APAP Bioequivalent to strengths approved - 5/500 mg Vicodin
5 /500 mg tablets of Abbott Laboratories 7.5/500 mg Hydrocodone with APAP
7.5 /500 mg tablets of Mikart Inc 10/500 mg Lortab 10/500 mg of UCB Pharma,
Inc. 7.5/750 mg Vicodin ES tablets 7.5/ 750mg of Abbott Laboratories 7.5/650
mg Hydrocodone with APAP tablets 7.5/650 mg of Mikart Inc. 10/650 mg Hydrocodone
with APAP 10 /650 mg tablets of Mikart Inc 10/660 mg Hydrocodone with APAP
10/660 mg of Mallinckdrodt, Inc 5/325 mg Norco tablets, Hydrocodone with
APAP 5/325 mg, from Watson Laboratories 7.5/325 mg Norco tablets, Hydrocodone
with APAP 7.5/ 325 mg, from Watson Laboratories 10/325 mg Norco tablets,
Hydrocodone with APAP 10/325 mg, from Watson Laboratories.
These strengths have annual sales of approximately USD 540 million in the
US which includes branded as well as generic products.
Approval was also received for generic Aredia®, pamidronate disodium
for injection USP, generic Lopid ®, gemfibrozil tablets, USP, and generic
Phenargan®, promethazine hydrochloride tablets. Generic Lopid contains
gemfibrozil 600 mg, a cholesterol reducing agent and has annual sales of
about USD 44 million in the US. Generic Aredia® is indicated in
the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy, paget's disease, osteolytic
bone metastases of breast cancer and osteolytic lesions of multiple myeloma.
Approval has been received for two strengths- 30 mg/ vial and 90 mg/ vial.
Genericand branded Aredia® has sales of approximately USD 20 million
in the US.
In addition, approval was received for generic Phenargan tablets. promethazine
hydrochloride USP. Generic Phenargan is an antihistamine/ antiemetic and
is available as 12.5 mg, 25 mg and 50 mg tablets bioequivalent to generic
Promethazine hydrochloride from Sandoz, Inc. Generic Phenargan® has sales
of approximately USD 50 million in the US.
These products, to be manufactured at multiple facilities of Sun Pharma (together
with its subsidiaries) in India and US, will reach market shortly.
Vicodin ® is a registered trademark of Abbott Laboratories.
Lopid® is a registered trademark of Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Aredia® is a registered trademark of Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation
Phenargan® is a registered trademark of Wyeth Pharmaceuticals.
Meanwhile, Abbott Laboratories fired 200 sales representatives preparing
to market a new abuse-resistant pain pill after the company stopped plans
to introduce the drug this year. The drugmaker said in October that
the drug, an extended release form of Vicodin, failed to gain U.S. Food and
Drug Administration approval. The company hasn’t released details of the
so-called complete response letter from the FDA. Vicodin is in a class
of powerful pain medications under scrutiny by U.S. regulators and doctors
because of increasing abuse rates and a fear the drugs may lose their effectiveness
when given over a long period of time. Abbott said its extended release form,
Vicodin CR, would be the first in the hydrocodone class of narcotics to provide
relief for 12 hours. Other hydrocodone drugs sell for less than $1 a dose
and must be taken every four to six hours. If approved, the drug may
face skepticism from insurers, who would be reluctant to pay for a more expensive
version of a drug that has had generic competition for years. A spokeswoman
for Abbott, “Based on the delay in the market availability of Vicodin CR,
Abbott is reducing the number of staff supporting our pain-care business.”
King Pharmaceuticals Inc., which bought Alpharma Inc. for $1.3 billion in
December, is gaining one of a half-dozen companies racing to sell the first
long-acting painkillers modified to deter potentially fatal misuse. By buying
Alpharma and investing in its own pain drugs, King has positioned itself
to lead a market that may reach $3 billion by 2015. Purdue Pharma LP,
maker of OxyContin, also is working to develop painkillers that are resistant
Hepatitis A infections, usually transmitted via contaminated food and water,
can cause debilitating illness. Protection afforded by the hepatitis
A vaccine may last more than a decade, a new study shows. In fact, antibodies
against hepatitis A virus persist for up to 27 years after vaccination, report
investigators from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta
and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in Anchorage, in the Journal
of Infectious Diseases.
As the low hanging fruit has been exhausted, the innovative drug development
became tougher due to tough FDA regulations and generic competition –
the innovative pharmaceutical industry, in general, is in trouble.
Pfizer’s research labs have failed to be innovative and produce enough new
medicines to replace drugs losing patent protection, led by the Lipitor cholesterol
pill, the world’s best-selling medicine with $12.7 billion in 2007 sales.
As a matter of act, Lipitor and Viagra were acquired, but not developed,
by Pfizer, which has become an industry-wide practice – acquire companies
and layoff workers.
Pfizer has fired more than 14,000 workers since 2006, after acquiring various
innovative companies that developed blockbuster drugs. Pfizer has reshaped
its research division, which includes 10,000 people and a budget of $7.5
billion a year. The company has a total workforce of 83,000.
As it focuses on developing medicines to treat cancer, brain disorders and
pain, Pfizer has begun firing 800 researchers, or 8 percent of its science
staff, in January. The research cuts add to firings of 1,200 scientists last
year with the closing of Pfizer’s Ann Arbor, Michigan, laboratory.
Pfizer is also trimming its U.S. sales operation to save money as top-selling
products lose patent protection.
Pfizer Inc. also wants to get rid of 100 experimental medicines for conditions
ranging from obesity to high cholesterol by selling them to rivals.
Pfizer is halting early-stage development of medicines for heart failure,
high cholesterol and obesity to focus on so-called more- profitable diseases.
Pfizer plans to seek U.S. regulatory approval for 15 to 20 drugs from 2010
to 2012 and will have as many as 28 drugs in the final stages of human tests
this year, three times the number in 2005. Pfizer would focus on six
areas of medicine: cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, pain,
inflammation and diabetes. These disease areas have the biggest growth potential
and the best possibility of medical advances, the company said last year.
Pfizer Inc is to buy Wyeth in a deal valued at about $68 billion. It
would diversify Pfizer into vaccines and injectable biologic medicines by
adding Wyeth's big-selling Prevnar vaccine for childhood infections and Enbrel
rheumatoid arthritis treatment. Aside from Enbrel, for which Wyeth
shares rights with Amgen, and Prevnar, Wyeth also is developing experimental
Alzheimer's disease drugs which could be a major opportunity. Pfizer is going
to slash more than 8,000 Jobs. Other possible preys for Pfizer were
Bristol-Myers Squibb or biotech giant Amgen Inc. Biogen Idec has also been
mentioned as a possible Pfizer target. Pfizer became the world's largest
drug-maker with its purchase in 2000 of Warner-Lambert and the $60 billion
acquisition three years later of Pharmacia. Pfizer exemplifies the overriding
problem for many large not-so-innovative-drug-makers, which have struggled
to produce new blockbusters to replace those on which they lose exclusivity.
India to Lead in Heart
Disease: The Indian Gene
Heart disease is the number one killer in the world and India is particularly
badly hit, with the problem set to intensify in coming years. The World Health
Organization estimates that by 2010, India will have 60% of the world's heart
patients. A gene mutation that almost guarantees the development of heart
disease is carried by 60m Indians, researchers at Center for Cellular and
Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, say. Around 4% people from the Indian
Continent (South Asia) have the mutation, which increases the risk of heart
disease seven-fold, the scientists from India, Britain and the United States,
in Nature Genetics, said 4 percent of people. The researchers first
identified the mutation in the heart protein gene MYBPC3 five years ago in
two Indian families with cardiomyopathy - a disease causing deterioration
of the heart muscle. It would be easy to test people at a young age
for the gene. However, all that doctors could do would be to offer
healthy lifestyle advice involving healthy food habits and exercise.
Patients with the mutant gene appear healthy throughout the early part of
their lives, but the abnormal protein manufactured from the gene slowly accumulates.
After they turn 45 or so, the abundance of the abnormal protein triggers
cardiomyopathy or other symptoms. The team found only three people
who had two copies of the abnormal gene. Two of them developed severe heart
disease before the age of 3. CCMB director Dr Lalji Singh said that
the defect could be detected very early during pregnancy through a pre-natal
diagnosis. If parents choose, a fetus having two copies of defective gene
(homozygous) could be aborted after genetic counseling.
Interestingly, this genetic defect is present only in the people of the Indian
Continent (~ 2 billion) including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka,
Indonesia and Malaysia but not in other countries. While virtually
absent among peoples from other parts of the world, the deadly genetic variant
is equally spread across most of India's regions, its social castes, as well
as its language and religious groups. In a follow-up sampling of more
than 2,000 indigenous individuals from 26 countries across five continents,
the telltale mutation showed up in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Indonesia,
but nowhere else. The dangerous did not die out over the course of evolution,
as usually happens to maladapted genes, because the harmful effects are felt
mainly late in life after people have had their children and passed on their
genes, so the mutation is essentially invisible to natural selection.
Selected native populations from the following countries were studied:
South Africa, Namibia, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African
Republic, Nigeria, Senegal, Algeria, Israel, Italy, France, Orkney Island,
Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Andaman, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Boungainville,
Australia, Cambodia, China, Japan, Russia, Mexico, Colombia and Brazil.
Selected local and native Tribes/castes studied in various states within
ANDHRA PRADESH: Goud, Kolma, Yanadi, Chenchu, Siddi (African settlers), Erkula,
Thotti, Gowda, Muslims, Velama, Padmashali, Sagara, Sugali, Madiga, Lambadi,
TAMIL NADU: Marvar, Kallar, Irulas, Kurumba, Agamudaiyar, Paniyan,
Toda, Kota, Baduga, Chakkiliar, Khani, Malayali, Parayar, Paliyar, Malaikurvar,
Kondareddy, Arundathi, Lingayath, and Anglo-Indian.
KERALA: Oorali, Kattunayakkan, Kurcha, Kuruman, Muslims, Malayan, Ulladan,
KARNATAKA: Halakki and Kunabi,
MAHARASTRA: Mahadekoli, Thakar, Parsi (Iranian descent) and Katkari,
GUJARAT: Rathwa, Koli, Tadvi, Girasia, Vatika Gond and Bhils.
MADHYA PRADESH: Bhilala, Barela, Kol, Bhil, Gond, Mawasi, Sahariya,
Korku and Baiga.
UTTRANCHAL: Tharus and Buxas
UTTAR PRADESH: Brahmin, Sidhi, Muslim, Haburra, Chipi, lakodiga, Rajput,
Diwari, Yadava, Saharia, Rohidas, Kori and Lodhe
RAJASTHAN: Bheels, Meena and Meghwa
CHATTISGARH: Sathnami, Santhal, Gond, and Kanwar, Bhist and Bhotia.
ORISSA: Oraon, Kissan, Dhurva, Bonda and Gadaba.
JHARKAND: Ho, Munda and Oraon.
NAGALAND: Chakhesang-Naga, Ao-Naga and Naga-Sema.
ARUNACHAL PRADESH: Nyshi
ANDAMAN ISLANDS: Great Andamanese, Nicobarese and Onges.
Intas Biopharmaceuticals Limited (IBPL), India’s leading biotechnology company,
signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Government of Gujarat for
setting up a separate manufacturing facility for Monoclonal Antibodies (MAbs),
a recombinant mammalian platform product. The company will invest Rs 160
crores towards setting up a manufacturing facility at Sanand near Ahmedabad.
The facility, dedicated for Monoclonal Antibodies, will undertake large-scale
manufacturing of the recombinant product with a capacity of 5000L in phases.
In the area of Research & Development pertaining to recombinant products,
the company is developing Novel Drug Delivery System for proteins, a cloning
facility, introducing novel production platforms, developing MAbs and recombinant
products (cytokines, hormones and blood factors). The company, in a planned
and phase-wise manner, will screen technologies / new molecules and identify
the most promising ones, prioritizing them on the basis of their business
potential and compatibility. IBPL is planning to generate clones for commercial
production of protein using state-of-the-art technologies to improve yields,
quality as well as adopting novel expression systems with an objective to
build Intellectual Property over the long run. MAbs has strong potential
of generating IP in terms of patents and could provide a novel platform for
delivery of many of the protein therapeutics.
Drugs in Japan: Novartis
Novartis AG said it has received approval in Japan to market four drugs to
treat asthma, cancer, hypertension and blindness. The Swiss pharmaceuticals
company said the approvals covered omalizumab, known as Xolair, for treating
severe bronchial asthma in adult patients; nilotinib, or Tasigna, to treat
certain forms of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia,
a rare form of cancer; a new single-pill combination of valsartan - known
as Diovan - and hydrochlorothiazide for high blood pressure treatment; and
ranibizumab, or Lucentis, for patients with wet age-related macular degeneration,
a form of blindness which affects about 20,000 people in Japan each year.
Compassion and Altruism Research and Education
A new Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education has been
launched at the Stanford University School of Medicine, with the aim of doing
scientific research on the neural underpinnings of these thoughts and feelings.
His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, provided $150,000 in seed
money for the center—the largest sum he has ever given for a scientific venture—and
has agreed to return to Stanford for a future visit, according to Geshe Thupten
Jinpa, a translator for the Dalai Lama.
The center is the brainchild of Jim Doty, MD, a clinical professor of neurosurgery
who recently returned to Stanford after a period of entrepreneurship, and
neurologist William Mobley, MD, PhD, the John E. Cahill Family Professor
in the School of Medicine. Doty is the director of the center, which is housed
within the Stanford Institute for Neuro-Innovation and Translational Neurosciences.
The impetus for the center began in November 2005, when the Dalai Lama visited
Stanford for a dialogue with scientists and Buddhist scholars that was moderated
by Mobley and focused on spiritual and scientific explorations of human experience
in the areas of craving, suffering and choice. In March 2008, a delegation
from Stanford flew to Seattle, where the Dalai Lama was attending a conference
related to compassion. On hearing from the Stanford group about the goals
of the planned center and the pilot studies under way, the Dalai Lama agreed
to a return visit to Stanford and spontaneously volunteered the $150,000
donation to spur continuing exploration in this area. This event marked the
transition from what was initially an informal gathering of like-minded scientists
to the formal creation of the center by medical school Dean Philip Pizzo.
Questions the center wishes to address include:
-Is it possible to create a set of mental exercises that individuals can
be taught to make them more compassionate without them having to spend thousands
of hours in meditation (common for Buddhist monks)?
- Is there an explanation for why a child becomes a bully?
- Are there ways in which children or their parents can be taught to
be more compassionate?
- Can we create a set of exercises that will address the issue of “compassion
fatigue” in clergy and hospital personnel?
- Would such training benefit prison inmates to decrease violence and
- Is there a place for such training in the corporate environment to
decrease the incidence of depression and anxiety in workers?
The center is also sponsoring a symposium, slated for March, that will bring
together a multidisciplinary group of scientists from around the world. Attendees
will include philosophers, contemplative scholars, psychologists, developmentalists,
primatologists, neuroeconomists and neuroscientists working in the area of
compassion and altruism research. Doty brings a unique perspective
on altruism to the center. At one point, he accumulated a $75 million fortune,
part of which he committed as a multimillion-dollar pledge to Stanford University.
But following the dot-com meltdown, Doty was $3 million in debt even after
liquidating essentially all of his assets. To honor his charitable commitments,
he sold his only remaining asset: stock in Accuray Inc., a publicly traded
company he had previously headed as CEO. This allowed Doty to fulfill pledges
of $5.4 million to the university and another $20 million to other charities.
Part of his Stanford donation is being used to fund the center.
Source: The primary
sources cited above, BBC
News, New York Times (NYT), Washington
Post (WP), Mercury News, Bayarea.com,
Chicago Tribune, CNN, USA Today, Intellihealthnews,
Deccan Chronicle (DC), the
Hindu, Hindustan Times, Times of
India, AP, Reuters, AFP, Biospace
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