Gleevec and the Faltering
Indian Patent Regime
USPTO Accelerated Examination:
PTO Training Session
Research in Alternative
NIH Research on Berries
Save Women in India
Drug Coated Stents
10 Worst Polluted Cities
Energy Wasters League
Rayataz for HIV
Viagra for pulmonary arterial
Seroquel for Bipolar Disorder
FDA Approval of Generic Drugs
Gleevec and the Faltering
Indian Patent Regime
Gleevec/Glivec® (imatinib mesylate) tablets have received approval in
the U.S. for five additional disorders. This marks the first time a regulatory
authority has simultaneously approved one targeted medicine for so many disorders,
Novartis reports. The additional indications include one solid tumor and four
blood disorders. Gleevec is already in the market for the treatment of chronic
myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in the U.S.
The FDA approvals are based on data from Novartis-sponsored clinical studies
and clinical data from independent medical researchers, according to the
Gleevec targets the activity of proteins called tyrosine kinases that appear
to play important roles within some cancer cells, explains Novartis. It has
been shown to inhibit the function of the tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl in patients
with certain forms of blood cancer—Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic
myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic
leukemia (Ph+ ALL)—and the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit in Kit-positive GIST.
Researchers have found Gleevec also inhibits other tyrosine kinases, including
platelet-derived growth factor receptor, which seem to be activated in disease
pathways that underlie a number of rare hematologic diseases as well as some
solid tumors. The new diseases for which Gleevec received approval are dermatofibrosarcoma
protuberans, relapsed/refractory Ph+ ALL, certain forms of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative
diseases, hypereosinophilic syndrome/chronic eosinophilic leukemia, and aggressive
systemic mastocytosis. The company is also awaiting approval for treating
patients newly diagnosed with Ph+ ALL.
Researchers reported in the journal Nature Medicine in July that
there was evidence Gleevec caused heart failure in 10 patients. They said
other drugs in the same class, called tyrosine kinase inhibitors, may damage
the heart too. Patients with heart disease or risk factors for cardiac
failure should be monitored carefully, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
said in a notice on its Web site. Any patients with signs of cardiac failure
should be evaluated and treated, the FDA added.
The $2-billion Gleevec is a drug crucial to prolonging the life of patients
suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia (blood cancer). Novartis sells Gleevec
at Rs 14.4 lakh ($26,000) per patient per year. Generic drug companies who
didn't spend millions of dollars and years of research in developing the drug
can sell illegitimate versions of the drug for cheap. Yet these generic
companies make a lot of profit, due to the fact that they didn't incur any
cost in developing. Still, these greedy generic companies sell Gleevec
at a price, which is unaffordable for 90% of the population. Generic Veenat
(imatinib mesylate) is available in India for about Rs 96,000 ($2100) per
patient per year, while the average income in India is about $ 450 per year.
What is the purpose of selling a generic drug that costs 5 times more than
the average annual income of an Indian? Is this drug for the poor, as claimed
by various organizations? The tall claim that dilution of product patent regime
is to help the poor in India is bogus. This is a game plan by the generic
drug industry, which does not want to develop new branded drugs by spending
money on R&D, but wants to make profit from the hard work of other innovative
entities outside the country.
Unfortunately, costs of developing new drugs are high. Companies like
Novartis, Pfizer, AstraZeneca etc. take the risk and develop new drugs.
For example, AstraZeneca is forced to abandon its late-stage therapy (spending
millions of dollars in developing it) for stroke after a clinical trial failed
to demonstrate any significant benefit over a placebo. NYX-059 was considered
one of the company's biggest and brightest hopes for achieving blockbuster
status and its failure at this stage sent AstraZeneca shares down. The news
proved a disaster for Renovis, which had licensed the therapy to AstraZeneca.
Its shares lost three quarters of their value after the news hit. Whereas
the generic drug companies in the third world lost nothing in this venture
so far, while waiting for the drug to be developed, so that they can make
profit by snatching it from the developer.
Greedy generic drug companies and their allies in the third world are not
willing to let a drug developer have its legitimate monopoly to recover the
costs sunk into the development of the new drugs. Nobody disputes that
fact that generic drugs are very important. However, they should be
sold only after the expiry of the patents. This is fundamental to the
development of new drugs and products.
Pharmaceutical companies seek to use patentability of polymorphs as a means
to extend the monopoly protection of a known active ingredient already patented.
However, such forms can be deemed within the prior art, and therefore non-patentable,
if they were obtained following the process of the basic patent on the active
ingredient or were covered by a previous product patent. Patent offices should
be aware of the possible unjustified extension of the term of protection arising
from the successive patenting of the active ingredient and its polymorphs.
However, Gleevec ran into problems in India on several levels, including
the basic issues concerning patentability of polymorphs. Generic companies
who have invested nothing in developing the drug have an immense interest
in making a profit by selling the generic version of the drug. To do
so, Gleevec should not be patented in India. Patients, public interest
groups and international groups like Doctors without Borders have an interest
in keeping the drug not patented in India. Their immediate concern is
to provide cheap drugs to the poor. They have no concern for the long-term
effects of an ineffective patent regime on the new drug development in India,
which has not developed a single branded drug so far for the world's rich
or poor. Populist political parties and the various interest groups
have effectively managed to have a clause in Indian patent law, which does
not allow issue of a patent for Gleevec.
The section that is the culprit for Gleevec's problems in India is section
3(d) of the Indian Patent Law, which was exploited by the interest groups
in preventing the issue of the patent.
|Section 3 of Principal Act, for class (d)
the following shall be substituted, namely:
"(d) the mere discovery of a new form of a known substance which does not
result in the enhancement of the known efficacy of that substance or the mere
discovery of any new property or new use for a known substance or of the
mere use of a known process, machine or apparatus unless such known process
results in a new product or employs at least one new reactant.
Explanation: For the purpose of this clause, salts,
esters, ethers, polymorphs, metabolites, pure form, particle size, isomers,
mixtures of isomers, complexes, combinations and other derivatives of known
substances shall be considered to be the same substance, unless they differ
significantly in properties with regard to efficacy.
Pharmaceutical companies are becoming increasingly aware of the importance
of gaining patent protection for specific crystal forms of API's. Polymorphs
and isomers are an important aspect of drug development. Accordingly,
the EPO and USPTO recognize polymorphs as patentable, if they show unexpected
properties. Even if a chemical compound is known, it may be possible to obtain
patent protection upon a given crystal form or polymorph. Indeed, patent applications
are commonly filed on the polymorphs of an active pharmaceutical so as to
extend patent protection on the pharmaceutical or as a supplementary patent.
The process by which an optimal solid form is selected involves an appreciation
of the pharmaceutical development process and the requirements of the drug
substance and drug product.
Polymorphism has become a concern in today's pharmaceutical research labs
as it affects a number of issues in pharmaceutical systems varying from processing
characteristics to bioavailability. During the pre-formulation stage of drug
development, polymorph screening is a tedious and time-consuming but essential
process. Discovering this polymorphic behavior is crucial, as the case of
Norvir (ritonavir) demonstrates. The drug, a protease inhibitor from Abbott
Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill., had to be pulled from the market in 1998
and reformulated after the emergence of a polymorph cut the drug's bioavailability
Since polymorphs and solvates differ in crystal structure, and also differ
in some, or all of their properties, these characteristics lead to patentable
inventions, which can become the subject of litigations. Some recent case
histories of high visibility patent litigations of pharmaceutical products
demonstrate some of the chemical issues involved, and the implications for
future discovery and patent preparation.
One of the principal regulatory concerns with respect to pharmaceutical
solid polymorphism is based upon the potential effect it may have on drug
product bioequivalence/ bioavailablity, and hence upon therapeutic efficacy.
These concepts form the foundation for the scientific and regulatory aspects
that pertain to polymorphism and drug substance "sameness".
Indian laws and the Constitution are inherently against incentives for innovation
and R&D spending, so far. The Constitution of India guarantees right
to health and life, but does not guarantee new innovative therapies by
providing for short-term monopolies for the inventor, in return for the disclosure
of the invention for the benefit of the society. In the past half century
of independent India, there has not been a single groundbreaking therapy
or drug developed that would help the world's poor or rich, because the Indian
patent regime has been very unfriendly to innovation, research and development.
New research is needed to find new drugs for cancer. The Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) approved Gleevec as a treatment for CML about six
years ago. Since then, a significant number of patients who initially responded
well to Gleevec have acquired additional mutations and developed resistance
to the drug. In these patients, white blood cells continue to proliferate.
If left unchecked, it leads to the final, acute stage, called the blast crisis,
where immature white blood cells infiltrate the blood and the bone marrow.
Indian drug industry and the government don't have any specific research programs
to address the drug resistance to Gleevec. What is the outcome of developing
a patent regime that doesn't protect new polymorphs and isomers that would
help generate resources for the research necessary to discover new remedies?
Researchers in the US tested the effects of forskolin on normal, Gleevec-sensitive
and Gleevec-resistant CML cells, and discovered that the forskolin reduced
the cancer cells' ability to grow by up to 90 percent and induced leukemic
cell death and differentiation. The ayurvedic herb forskolin, which comes
from the root of the plant Coleus Forskohlii (Makandi), is a member of the
mint (Lamiaceae) family, and has been part of the Indian medicine for centuries.
The current patent regime in India would not allow expensive research, development
and clinical studies of a new drug based on forskolin, because the regime
is against providing protection for derivatives of known molecules.
Who are the losers in the long run? All Indians, rich and poor, are the losers
in this game of "rich against poor" played by the generic drug industry in
collusion with organizations like Doctors without Borders (Medicines Sans
Frontiers), whose survival depends on the profits form selling drugs to the
poor in the third world. (Especially by selling the generic drug Veenat (imatinib
mesylate) that costs 5 times the annual income of an average Indian.)
Accelerated Examination: PTO Training Session
The PTO has established an extensive set of new rules for accelerated examination
and the associated petition to make special (PTMS). The new rules require
much more from the applicant, but also lead to “a final decision by the
examiner within 12 months from the application filing date.”
The USPTO has established procedures under which the examination of a patent
application may be accelerated. Under one of these procedures, the USPTO
will advance an application out of turn for examination if the applicant
files a grantable petition to make special under the accelerated examination
program.The USPTO is similarly revising the procedures for other petitions
to make special, except those based on applicant’s health or age or the PPH
pilot program. Other petitions to make special (i.e., based on: manufacture,
infringement, environmental quality, energy, recombinant DNA, superconductivity
materials, HIV/AIDS and cancer, countering terrorism, and biotechnology applications
filed by small entities MPEP § 708.02) will be processed examined using
the revised procedure for accelerated examination. Thus, petitions to make
special, except those based on applicant’s health or PPH pilot program, will
be required comply with the requirements for petitions to make special under
accelerated examination program as set forth in this notice.
The effective date for this change in practice is 25 August 2006.
On Thursday, November 2nd at 1:00 Chicago Time, the PTO will hold a one-hour
live web-cast to provide information on the process and its “benefits.”
Sign up for the webcast: here. http://websurveyor.net/wsb.dll/39376/AccExamAnnEnrollmentForm.htm
in Alternative Medicine
A plant used widely in China is the focus of a national clinical trial that
aims to see if it could help treat Alzheimer's disease and other types of
dementia. The University of North Carolina Hospitals are participating
in the national clinical trial on Chinese club moss, which is already being
sold in stores with nutritional supplements and is used in China as a treatment
for cognitive disorders. The study, sponsored by the National Institute on
Aging, is one of a growing number of federally funded research studies focused
on natural and alternative therapies. The centers of the National Institutes
of Health expect to spend $300.5 million in complementary and alternative
medicine research in the 2007 budget year. Even with the recent financial
commitment, research in that area is limited, making it difficult for doctors
to get information that is essential to understanding the risks and benefits
of certain treatments.
Every year millions of people (mostly women) suffer with urinary tract infections
(UTIs). Nearly 90% of these infections are caused by the bacteria E. coli,
which is actually considered a “good” bacteria when it remains in the gastrointestinal
tract where it belongs. Problems occur when E. coli leaves the GI tract and
finds its way up the urethra and into the bladder, where it multiplies and
spreads. Once the infection takes hold, uncomfortable symptoms usually follow.
These may include: A frequent urge to urinate, Painful urination (a “burning”
sensation), Strong, unpleasant urine odor, Cloudy urine, Uncomfortable pressure
in the lower abdomen. Most patients diagnosed with a UTI are prescribed
a course of antibiotics, which can wreak havoc on the body in several ways.
Antibiotics kill the “friendly” bacteria in the GI tract, which may result
in diarrhea, nausea, and/or constipation. These friendly bacteria also prevent
the overgrowth of yeast, so when they are killed off, a vaginal yeast infection
often results, requiring yet another medication to “cure”. And one more thing
to consider: the overuse of antibiotics can encourage the mutation of bacteria,
creating antibiotic-resistant strains.
The good news is that you may never need an antibiotic for a UTI again.
There is an all-natural product available which may prove just as effective
as an antibiotic, without any side effects whatsoever. It is inexpensive,
easy to use, and does not require a doctor’s prescription.
Current belief is that the prevention of UTI is achieved by inhibiting adhesion
of the infecting bacteria, E. coli, to uroepithelial cells. Bacterial adherence
to these cells is a critical step in the development of infection. It is facilitated
by fimbriae (proteinaceous fibers on the bacterial cell well). Fimbriae produce
adhesins which attach to receptors on uroepithelial cells. It is hypothesized
that cranberry constituents act by preventing adhesion. Thus, the causative
bacteria are flushed, preventing their colonization of the urinary tract.
In addition, there has been a report of the potential of cranberry juice
to weaken attachment of E. coli to inert (nonliving) surfaces for control
of biofilm formation on urinary catheters. Two components of cranberry juice
have been shown to inhibit the adherence of E. coli to uroepithelial cells
in vitro. The first is fructose which may not survive absorption and metabolism
intact to reach the urinary bladder. The second is a group of polymeric proanthocyanidins;
the chemical structures of three have been elucidated. Fructose inhibits
the adherence of type-1 fimbriated E. coli and proanthocyanidins inhibit
the adherence of P-fimbriated E. coli to uroepithelial cells.
But the FDA has not yet approved it as a medical treatment. This is largely
because as a naturally-occurring and well-known sugar, it cannot be patented.
Who would spend millions of dollars on an unpatentable product to get it approved
by FDA? Government or generic drug industry would not do that. Naturally,
the large drug companies have no incentive to spend the millions of dollars
it would take to do the large-scale controlled study which would be required
for FDA approval. Generic companies and the third world governments
that are against product patent regimes have no money or interest to do the
research and clinical trials for the benefit of poor people.
However, US Federal Government spends millions of dollars in research into
alternative medicines. For more on research support provided American
Misoprostol may Save Women
in the Indian Continent
An estimated 500,000 women die annually from complications during pregnancy
and childbirth, and the most common cause of death is postpartum bleeding.
In developed countries, where most births take place in hospitals and emergency
care is available, deaths from such hemorrhages are rare. But in rural India,
where a study was conducted between September 2002 and December 2005, about
half of all births occur without a doctor, and poor families often lack the
means and the transport to take a woman to the hospital in an emergency.
The estimated maternal death rate in India is 407 per 100,000 births, with
postpartum hemorrhage responsible for about 30 percent of those fatalities,
the study said. In the United States, that number is about 10 per 100,000,
with such hemorrhages accounting for only 17 percent of the deaths.
Though other, more expensive drugs are used to prevent excessive bleeding
in the developed world, misoprostol costs as little as 14 cents per pill and
requires no refrigeration and no special training to administer. The
drug stops bleeding in the uterus by causing it to contract. Misoprstol, normally
used to treat ulcers, was effective in preventing excessive postpartum bleeding
in women in poor areas. The discovery that may save the lives of thousands
who die annually from complications of childbirth, a British medical journal
reported. The study, which appeared in The Lancet, showed the drug,
misoprostol, reduced the likelihood of having such hemorrhages by 50 percent
over the three-year period during which the research was conducted in rural
Drug Coated Stents
A French study published in the New England Journal of Medicine found
that a therapy that uses stents to clear blockages in the carotid artery carried
twice the risk of stroke and sudden death compared to the standard surgical
treatment. Carotid stents be considered only for patients with at least 70%
blockage who have symptoms and are at high risk for standard surgery.
Recently, drug-coated stents have been shadowed by a flurry of news about
their long-term side effects. Doctors have found that a small number
of patients develop blood clots inside drug-coated stents long after they
are implanted. Such late-forming clots, which are frequently fatal, almost
never appear in bare-metal stents. As more evidence emerges that suggests
drug-coated stents have caused higher rates of blood clots than the older
generation of bare-metal stents, doctors at many hospitals have recently begun
shifting toward the older, bare-metal stents they replaced according to figures
provided to the Globe by Goodroe Healthcare Solutions LLC.
10 Worst Polluted
More than 10 million people are at risk for lung infection, cancer and shortened
life expectancy because they live in the 10 worst-polluted cities in the world,
according to a report published by the Blacksmith Institute, an international
environmental research group. Three Russian cities are among the most polluted
-- Dzherzhinsk, Norilsk and Rudnaya Pristan. The other cities are Linfen,
China; Haina, Dominican Republic; Ranipet, India; Mayluu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan;
La Oroya, Peru; Chernobyl, Ukraine; and Kabwe, Zambia. According to the report
the cities are reminders of an early industrial era, with most pollution stemming
from relics such as unregulated lead and coal mines or unrefined nuclear
weapons manufacturing plants. The top 10 list was compiled from more than
300 areas nominated by non-governmental agencies, local communities and international
environmental authorities. The list of criteria included the size of the
affected population, severity of the toxins involved and reliable evidence
of health impacts.
Britons are the worst energy wasters in Europe with bad habits which could
cost £11bn by 2010, a survey of Europe's five most populous nations
suggests. Leaving mobile phone chargers plugged in, appliances on standby
and lights on are among their most common failings. Almost half (48%) of Britons
admit to using the car for short journeys rather than public transport, walking
or cycling. If the levels of wastage continue, an extra 43m tonnes of carbon
dioxide will be pumped into the atmosphere by then, the Energy Saving Trust
People with type 2 diabetes have a new treatment option. The Food and Drug
Administration this week approved a new drug that boosts the body's ability
to lower blood sugar. The once-daily pill, Januvia, simultaneously increases
insulin production and decreases glucose production in the liver. Januvia's
manufacturer, Merck and Co., said that in a 1-year trial the drug lowered
blood sugar levels just as much as an older medication, glipizide, but without
the weight gain and episodes of extremely low blood sugar associated with
the older therapy. The most common side effects seen with Januvia were upper
respiratory tract infection, sore throat and diarrhea. Januvia is approved
for use alone or in combination with other type 2 diabetes drugs.
Rayataz for HIV
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) has granted approval of a new 300 mg single capsule formulation of REYATAZ(R)
(atazanavir sulfate) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults as part
of combination therapy. Taken once daily along with ritonavir and food as
part of a anti-HIV drug regimen, the REYATAZ 300 mg single capsule formulation
can replace two REYATAZ 150 mg capsules for: patients who have previously
received anti-HIV medicines, patients who will be receiving tenofovir disoproxil
fumarate, and patients who have never taken anti-HIV medicines that require
SUSTIVA(R) (efavirenz) as part of their anti-HIV drug regimen.
for pulmonary arterial hypertension
The drug sildenafil, popularly known as Viagra, may help people with chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease control the illness-related blood pressure spikes
in the heart's pulmonary artery, a new study found. The medication,
in addition to its use as a popular treatment for impotence, has already been
approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of the
chronic version of such blood pressure spikes, known as pulmonary arterial
hypertension (PAH). The drug has been marketed specifically for this purpose
under the trade name Revatio. Another drug -- bosentan -- is also approved
for similar purposes. The new research suggests that sildenafil may
help all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, even those
not diagnosed with full-blown PAH, who experience potentially dangerous pulmonary
arterial blood pressure increases both at rest and following exercise.
for Bipolar Disorder
More than seven million American adults are affected by bipolar disorder,
a serious psychiatric condition also known as manic depressive illness. Patients
with bipolar disorder are symptomatic almost half of their lives, and approximately
two-thirds of that time is spent in the depressed phase of the illness. For
many people with bipolar disorder, the depressive symptoms are significantly
more debilitating than the manic symptoms associated with the illness.
AstraZeneca announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has
approved SEROQUEL(R) (quetiapine fumarate) for the treatment of patients with
depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder. SEROQUEL already is
approved for the treatment of acute manic episodes associated with bipolar
I disorder and for the treatment of schizophrenia. SEROQUEL is now the first
and only single medication approved by the FDA to treat both depressive and
acute manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder.
Eisai and Pfizer Inc announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) has approved a supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for ARICEPT(R)
(donepezil HCl tablets) for treatment of severe Alzheimer's disease (AD).
With this approval, ARICEPT becomes the first and only prescription medication
to treat the full spectrum of AD (mild, moderate and severe). ARICEPT, which
is co-promoted in the United States by Eisai Inc. and Pfizer Inc, has been
approved in the United States since 1996 for treatment of mild to moderate
AD. While there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, ARICEPT can help slow
down the progression of symptoms, including memory loss. AD is a progressive
brain disease that gradually destroys a person's memory and ability to learn,
reason, make judgments, communicate and carry out daily activities. AD affects
4.5 million Americans. One in 10 persons over age 65 has AD, and as many as
half of those over 85 have it. About 20 percent of people with Alzheimer's
disease are in the severe stage.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a new indication
for the prescription proton pump inhibitor NEXIUM® (esomeprazole magnesium)
for the treatment of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES). NEXIUM already is indicated
for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in adults and
children ages 12 to 17, and to reduce the risk of NSAID-associated gastric
ulcers in at-risk patients.
ZES is a rare but serious chronic condition characterized by the development
of tumors that secrete excessive levels of gastrin, a hormone that stimulates
acid production by the stomach.
Schering-Plough Corporation reported that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) has approved NOXAFIL® (posaconazole) Oral Suspension for the treatment
of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), including infections refractory to itraconazole
and/or fluconazole. OPC is a fungal infection of the mouth and throat caused
by the yeast Candida. NOXAFIL is a novel triazole antifungal agent discovered
and developed by Schering-Plough Research Institute.
Sanofi-aventis U.S. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) has approved Allegra(R) (fexofenadine hydrochloride) Oral Suspension
for the twice-daily treatment of symptoms associated with seasonal allergies
in pediatric patients, 2 to 11 years of age, and for the treatment of chronic
idiopathic urticaria in children 6 months to 11 years of age. This approval
makes available a safe and effective seasonal allergy treatment option that
is non-impairing to pediatric populations as young as 2 years old.
Seasonal allergic rhinitis is a common chronic condition in children. Symptoms
of seasonal allergies include nasal drainage, sneezing, watery eyes and itchy
nose, eyes and throat. Studies indicate that seasonal allergy inflammation
as well as the impairing side effects of older antihistamines can be disruptive
to a child and may affect cognitive skills and function.
of Generic Drugs
The FDA has a backlog of more than 800 generic drugs awaiting an approval
decision under the current process that evaluates all applications in the
order it receives them. In 2005, the median time for an approval was more
than 16 months, according to the FDA. Last year, the FDA received
766 generic applications, the agency said. About 40 applications a year are
for those that, if approved, would be the first generic alternative to a
branded drug. At issue is a lack of staff and funding, the FDA and
others have said. Reviews for brand name drugs are funded in part by company
fees, but the FDA's work on generic bids is funded solely by the government.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration will accelerate its reviews of certain
generic drugs, a top agency official said on October 18. Companies
will be given priority if their application is the first one proposing a generic
version of a brand name drug that is no longer protected by a patent or market
exclusivity. Applications filed before a patent or exclusivity ends
would not be eligible under the new procedures now in effect. Generic
medicines that would address a public health emergency or nationwide shortage
would also see faster reviews, he told a conference sponsored by the Generic
Top generic drug makers include Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Barr
Pharmaceuticals Inc., Mylan Laboratories Inc., Watson Pharmaceuticals Inc.
and Novartis AG's Sandoz unit.
A new study in The Engineering Economist says Americans are burning
nearly 1 billion more gallons of gasoline each year than they did in 1960
because of their expanding waistlines. Simply put, more weight in the car
means lower gas mileage -more gas guzzling. Using recent gas prices
of $2.20 a gallon, that translates to about $2.2 billion more spent on gas
each year. The bottom line is that our hunger for food and our hunger
for oil are not independent. There is a relationship between the two.
Source: The primary
sources cited above, BBC News, New
York Times (NYT), Washington Post (WP),
Mercury News, Bayarea.com, Chicago
Tribune, USA Today, Intellihealthnews, Deccan
Chronicle (DC), the Hindu, Hindustan
Times, Times of India, AP, Reuters,
Notice: The content of the articles is intended to provide
general information. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific