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5109 Kali Era, Sarvajit
Vikramarka Era, Sarvajit
The United States produces the most nuclear energy, with nuclear power providing
20% of the electricity it consumes, while France produces the highest percentage
of its electrical energy from nuclear reactors - 80% as of 2006. In the European
Union as a whole, nuclear energy provides 30% of the electricity. Nuclear
energy policy differs between European Union countries, and some, such as
Austria and Ireland, have no active nuclear power stations. In comparison
France has a large number of these plants, with 16 currently in use.
As of October 31, 2005, there are 104 commercial nuclear generating units
that are fully licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to
operate in the United States. Of these 104 reactors, 69 are categorized a
pressurized water reactors (PWRs) totaling 65,100 net megawatts (electric)
and 35 units are boiling water reactors (BWR) totaling 32,300 net megawatts
(electric). Although the United States has the most nuclear capacity of any
nation, no new commercial reactor has come on line since May 1996. The current
Administration has been supportive of nuclear expansion, emphasizing its
importance in maintaining a diverse energy supply.
The last reactor to come on line in the United States was the Watt’s Bar
reactor in Tennessee, owned and operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority.
It began commercial service in May 1996. Nevertheless, US commercial nuclear
capacity has increased in recent years through a combination of license extensions
and uprating (upgrading) of existing reactors.
Buoyed by billions of dollars in subsidies pushed through Congress by the
Bush Administration, the U.S. nuclear power industry says 2007 is the year
its plans for a “renaissance” will reach critical mass. The mere discussion
of building dozens of new reactors is a remarkable turnaround for an industry
that less than 10 years ago was widely viewed as the energy sector’s unsafe
and expensive also-ran. And it’s a textbook case of how the wheels of government
can change direction quickly when enough money, influence and political will
This year, two license applications to build nuclear power units have been
filed in the United States for the first time in almost three decades. If
approved, the units will be built in Texas. The 2,700 megawatt project will
add two units to the existing two units at the South Texas Project nuclear
power plant at Bay City, 90 miles southwest of Houston. The new units should
come online in 2014 and 2015.
The units will contribute to NRG's goal of 10,000 MW of efficient, clean
power, the same amount the Electric Reliability Council of Texas projects
that Texas' energy needs will grow by 2014. The U.S. Department of Energy
says domestic energy needs will increase 40 percent by 2030, and the Nuclear
Energy Institute says 35 new nuclear power plants will be needed in the next
40 years. Based in Princeton, N.J., with operations throughout the U.S.,
Australia, Germany and Brazil, NRG says the plants will bring $9 billion
to the area and create up to 6,000 construction jobs and 800 new permanent
positions at the plant.
Expected New Nuclear Power Plants in USA:
As of January 1, 2005, Illinois ranked 1st among the 31 States with nuclear
capacity. The origin of all of the commercial and military nuclear industries
in the world can be traced back to December 2, 1942 at the University of
Chicago. On that day, a team of scientists under Dr. Enrico Fermi initiated
the first controlled nuclear chain reaction.
The experiment began Illinois' involvement in nuclear development, but did
not end it. Sixty-four years later, Illinois remains the national leader
in nuclear capacity. Illinois has almost as much nuclear capacity by itself
as the United Kingdom. Twenty-one other countries with at least one nuclear
plant have less capacity. (Illinois Nuclear Industry; Population -12.7 million;
Report Updated: August 18, 2006 http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/at_a_glance/states/statesil.html)
Compare this situation with that in India, which proved its ability in 1974.
India lags behind in nuclear energy, despite its need for electricity to
provide better life for the poor.
India: Population -1.2 billion
Location Unit Namea Capacity
(net MWe) b Utilityc Typed
Reactor Suppliere Percent Completef
Expected / Actual Date of Operation
Karnataka Kaiga 1 202
NP PHWR NPCIL 75
Kaiga 2 202 NP
PHWR NPCIL 75 11/1998
Gujarat Kakrapar 1 202
NP PHWR DAE/NPCIL
Kakrapar 2 202 NP
Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu Kalpakkam 1 155
NP PHWR DAE 100
Kalpakkam 2 155 NP
PHWR DAE 100
Rajasthan Rajasthan 1 90
NP PHWR AECL 100
Rajasthan 2 187 NP
PHWR AECL/DAE 100
Rajasthan 3 202 NP
PHWR NPCIL 70
Rajasthan 4 202 NP
PHWR NPCIL 70
Rajasthan 5 450 NP
PWHR -- 0
Rajasthan 6 450 NP
PWHR -- 0
Tamil Nadu Kudankulam 1 1,000
NP PWR -- 0
Kadunkulam 2 1,000
NP PWR -- 0
Uttar Pradesh Narora 1 202
NP PHWR DAE/NPCIL
Narora 2 202 NP
PHWR DAE/NPCIL 100
Maharashtra Tarapur 1 150
NP BWR GE 100
Tarapur 2 150 NP
BWR GE 100
Tarapur 3 450 NP
PHWR NPCIL 10
Tarapur 4 450 NP
PHWR NPCIL 2
aThe Energy Information Administration's review of the latest data sources
may have resulted in revisions of names, capacities, and operation dates.
For the Error! Hyperlink reference not valid., revisions are based on the
Form-860 "Annual Electric Generator Report."
bMWe = Megawatts-electric.
cNuclear Power Corporation of India, LTD
dReactor Types: APWR, advanced pressurized light-water-moderated and cooled
reactor; BWR, boiling light-water-cooled and moderated reactor; LGR, light-water-cooled,
graphite-moderated reactor; PHWR, pressurized heavy-water-moderated and cooled
reactor; PWR, pressurized light-water-moderated and cooled reactor.
e GE - General Electric Company [ United States ]
DAE Department of Atomic Energy, India
NPCI - Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Ltd.
fPercent complete is an estimate of how close the nuclear unit was to completion
as of December 31, 1996.
gPublished date is the estimated date of commercial operation.
hEIA projection refers to when a nuclear unit is estimated to become operable.
A dash (--) indicates that the estimated year of operability is beyond the
Sources: International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Power Reactors in the
World (Vienna, Austria, April 1997); Nuclear News, "World List of Nuclear
Power Plants" (March 1997), pp. 37-52. NAC International, "Nuclear Generation,"
(February 1997), Section F, pp. 1-43; Form EIA-860 "Annual Electric Generator
India has now an opportunity to change the situation by joining forces with
US by ratifying the Nuclear Deal. The US-India civil nuclear deal emerged
as the centerpiece of the historic US-India Summit on July 18, 2005 between
President Bush and India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Prime Minister
Manmohan Singh's coalition faces an informal end-October deadline to start
working on the next steps needed to clinch the deal, and if the row with
left parties opposed to it is not resolved by then early polls may be called.
The civilian nuclear cooperation pact, first agreed in principle in 2005,
aims to end India's nuclear isolation and give it access to U.S. fuel and
reactors. While it has been hailed as historic by the two governments and
seen as a symbol of their growing strategic ties, communist parties (Maoists-followers
of Chinese Communism) who shore up the Indian coalition have rejected it
and threatened to end support if New Delhi pursues the deal, while China
has planned additional reactors, including some of the world's most advanced,
to give a fivefold increase in nuclear capacity to 40 GWe by 2020 and then
a further three to fourfold increase to 120-160 GWe by 2030.
Curbing global-warming pollution in Illinois might start with a ban on Thomas
Edison's incandescent light bulb. Gov. Rod Blagojevich is mulling plans to
rid the state of traditional, energy-wasting lights as part of a sweeping
package of policy changes intended to cut greenhouse gases by 25 percent
by 2020, the same target set by California and bipartisan measures pending
Despite being number 1 in nuclear energy production, Illinois is a top polluter
in terms of greenhouse emissions using coal and oil based technologies. http://www.chicagotribune.com/services/newspaper/printedition/sunday/chi-greenhousesep30,0,993850.story
Dr. Reddy's v Teva
Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Inc. has fought back against Teva Pharmaceutical
Industries Ltd. in the battle over GlaxoSmithKline Inc.'s drug Coreg, saying
a lawsuit that seeks to bar Dr. Reddy's from marketing a generic version
of the congestive heart failure treatment should be scrapped because all
claims of the asserted patents are invalid.
In another case, the Israeli drug company has reached an agreement to drop
a patent infringement suit filed against the Indian drug maker over its generic
version of the antidepressant Zoloft.
Ranbaxy in Canada
A federal court in Canada has ruled that Pfizer Inc.’s patent covering the
key ingredient in Lipitor would be infringed by Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd.’s
method for developing a generic copy of the cholesterol-lowering drug.
Patent Reform in USA
The passage of H.1908 by the House of Representatives represents a major
leap forward along the path. The following are some highlights of the statute
Listing of commonly owned applications and patents under 37 CFR 1.78(f):
Bill for Drug Safety
A bill, heralded as the most significant drug safety legislation in more
than 40 years, passed on a 405-7 vote. Broadly, the bill renews for five
years two programs to collect fees from drug and medical device manufacturers
to defray the FDA's expense in reviewing products seeking agency approval.
In the wake of the Vioxx withdrawal and subsequent problems with other drugs,
lawmakers seized on the legislation to overhaul how the FDA handles the safety
of the drugs it regulates. The bill also seeks to increase the agency's scrutiny
of drugs after they are on the market. As was the case with Vioxx, serious
safety concerns took years to emerge.
The bill would require companies to publicly release results of all clinical
trials that show how well their drugs performed, although the level of disclosure
remains to be determined. It also would give the FDA the power both to require
drug companies to further study the safety of medicines if needed and to
mandate new label warnings. Republican fears that language contained in that
latter provision would expose drug companies to liability if sued in state
court had helped hold up negotiations. The FDA also would gain the ability
to fine drug companies for not completing follow-up studies on their drugs
after they've won government approval. While companies today often agree
to do such studies, they are slow to get under way and slower to be completed,
if ever. The bill calls for drug companies to pay $393 million, and medical
device makers $48 million, in fees next year.
The invention all admired, and each how he
To be the inventor missed; so easy it seemed,
Once found, which yet unfounded most would have thought,
Milton, John, "Paradise Lost", Part VI, ll. 478-501 (1667)
Diabetes treatment Galvus has been approved for use in the European Union,
the Swiss drugmaker said. The approval by the European Commission had
been expected after a July recommendation by a committee of experts at the
European Medicines Agency. It will boost prospects for a drug that faces
a lengthy delay in getting to market in the United States.
Novartis has said it would not be ready to resubmit Galvus to U.S. regulators
until mid-2009, following a request for more safety data. The once-daily
oral treatment was approved for use in combination with other common oral
anti-diabetes medicines, metformin, sulfonylureas or thiazolidinediones,
Novartis said in a statement. The approval applies to all 27 EU countries
as well as Norway and Iceland.
Galvus works in a similar way to Merck & Co. Inc.'s recently launched
Januvia but its path to market has been delayed by worries over skin toxicity.
Both Galvus and Januvia are so-called DPP-4 inhibitors, which are designed
to enhance the body's own ability to lower elevated blood sugar and could
become an important new way to control type 2 diabetes, the most common form
of the disease. The manufacturers and many analysts believe DPP-4 drugs
could become blockbusters because they are not associated with weight gain,
a major side effect of some established diabetes drugs.
Test is Unveiled
The Bush administration unveiled a revamped citizenship test Thursday intended
to promote assimilation and patriotism -- a redesign some critics contend
erects a higher hurdle for immigrants who want to become citizens.
The 100 new civics questions -- which test knowledge of American government,
history and civics and take effect Oct. 1, 2008 -- will require less rote
memorization and are meant to focus more on fostering identification with
For example, applicants may currently be asked, "What country did we fight
during the Revolutionary War?" But starting next year, applicants could be
asked to explain why the colonists fought the British. They may also have
to describe what the "rule of law" is and outline one constitutional amendment
concerning the right to vote. (Applicants are asked 10 questions and must
answer at least six correctly to pass.) http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/la-na-citizenship28sep28,0,604800.story
How a Patent
Lawyer Mom Keeps Scales in Balance?
Sharon Hwang laughs when you ask her how she does it all. As a full-time
patent lawyer and mom of three, she's familiar with the question.
Source: The primary sources
cited above, BBC News, New York Times
(NYT), Washington Post (WP), Mercury
News, Bayarea.com, Chicago Tribune,
USA Today, Intellihealthnews, Deccan Chronicle
(DC), the Hindu, Hindustan Times,
Times of India, AP, Reuters, AFP, womenfitness.net,
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